The Epigraphic Evidence
Commenting on the history of Central Asia, Heinrich Zimmer writes: ‘During the sixth and early seventh centuries AD the whole tract was controlled by Turkish rulers, but in the course of the seventh, with increasing strength of the T’ang Emperors, China gained control. Finally, however, under the onslaught of Islam, from the eighth century to the tenth, both Buddhist and Manichaean as well as the Nestorian Christian culture and monuments of the region were destroyed.’1
Coming to North India, he continues: ‘In the north very little survives of the ancient edifices that were there prior to the Muslim conquest: only a few mutilated religious sites remain2. It is clear from Indian literature that both temples and images must have existed in the second century BC and perhaps earlier. Very little architectural evidence remains, however, antedating the epoch of the Gupta dynasty (C. AD 320-650), for it was precisely in the Ganges Valley, the central and chief area of the Gupta empire, that the Muslim empire flourished a millennium later and most of the monuments above ground were destroyed by the sectarian zeal of Islam. The oldest stone ruins that have been found represent not the beginnings of a style, but fully developed forms.’3
He is specific about the destruction of Buddhism in India. ‘Since the earliest important body of Indian art surviving to us,’ he says, ‘ stems from the century of Aśoka, it is predominantly Buddhist. During subsequent periods, however, Buddhist and Hindu (Brahmanical) themes alternate in rich profusion. The two traditions flourished side by side, even sharing colleges and monasteries, for nearly two millenniums, until about the height of the Muslim conquest (C. AD 1200), Buddhism disappeared from the land of its birth.’4
By now there are hundreds of publications which provide detailed studies of the architecture and sculpture of many Hindu monuments from all over India. But only a few of them, mostly written by foreigners, state clearly that what have been studied are heaps of ruins dug out by archaeologists from under tell-tale mounds. Hindu writers, by and large, leave the impression as if they have studied monuments which stand intact and in all their original majesty. It is only when we come to the plates that the truth dawns upon us. What we find there staring us in the face are mostly ruins with architectural fragments and mutilated sculptures lying scattered on the surface or brought up from underneath.
The travels of Buddhist pilgrims from China and the pre-Islamic epigraphic records on stones and copper plates tell us how many temples and monasteries stood at what place and at what time. Histories written by medieval Muslim historians inform us as to who made these monuments disappear and when. The two sources, taken together, present a total picture which historians have so far studied in separate parts.
Hindus are famous (or notorious) for their poor sense of history as Christians, Muslims and the modern Westerners understand it. Hindus of medieval India were no exception. They have left no record of what happened to their places of worship and pilgrimage at the hands of Islamic iconoclasm. We do come across descriptions of the Muslim behaviour pattern in the Hindu literature from that period. An invariable ingredient of that pattern is the destruction of temples and the desecration of idols. Accounts relating to destruction of particular temples at particular dates and places are very rare. That sort of detailed evidence comes almost entirely from medieval Muslim sources, literary and epigraphic. Archaeological explorations and excavations in modern times have only confirmed and supplemented that evidence.
Times have changed and so also some moral standards of mankind. Religious tolerance is a value which is cherished today universally by the dominant intellectual elite of the world. Muslim theologians, scholars and politicians in present-day India, therefore, want us to believe that Islam stands for religious tolerance and that there was never a time when it interfered by means of force with the religious beliefs or practices of other people. They resent any reference whatsoever to the destruction of Hindu temples by Muslim invaders and rulers in medieval India. Leftist professors and politicians who subscribe to what they describe as Secularism, dismiss this significant chapter in medieval India’s history as a canard spread by ‘Hindu communalists’. As most of these worthies happen to be Hindus by accident of birth, they add considerable weight to Muslim assertions.
There was, however, a time not so long ago when Muslim theologians prescribed and Muslim swordsmen practised destruction of Hindu temples5 on a large scale. Hundreds of Muslim historians have credited their heroes with what they rightly regarded as a pious performance according to the principal tenets of Islam. Most of these histories, written in India as well as elsewhere in the Islamic world, have been printed and translated in one or more of the modern languages. They are on the shelves of public and private libraries all over the world. Then there are inscriptions in Arabic and Persian which proclaim the destruction of Hindu temples or their conversion into mosques with considerable pride. These, too, have been deciphered, translated and published by archaeological surveys covering India, Central Asia, Eastern Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh. They leave us in no doubt about one of the favourite pastimes of pious Muslim princes in all these countries which constituted at one time the vast cradle of Hindu culture.
In this and the following chapter we shall present evidence of temple destruction from Islamic sources which we have been able to reach within limits of our resources. Many sources have remained untapped. It is hoped that future scholars will fill the gaps in what is a very important subject in the domain of religious studies. Destroying places of worship of the conquered people has been an important aspect of Christianity and Islam. But religious studies in the West have so far neglected this aspect because of their Christian bias. Religious studies in India have failed to take it up partly because we follow the Western patterns of research but mostly because we subscribe to a mistaken notion of Secularism. Secularism arose in the modern West as a revolt against the closed theology of Christianity which had acquired a stranglehold on the State; in India, unfortunately, Secularism has become the biggest single protector of closed theologies promoted by Christianity and Islam.
There will be frequent references to Muslim kings and dynasties in this narrative. Appendix 1 can be consulted for placing every reference in its proper historical context. At a later stage in this study we shall follow the trail of Islamic invasions as they advanced towards different parts of the Hindu homeland and worked havoc all along their path. That will facilitate an understanding of the evidence from modern archaeological explorations and excavations which we shall present subsequently.
There are many Muslim monuments all over India which provide unmistakable evidence that materials from demolished Hindu temples have been used in their construction. Most of them carry inscriptions in Arabic or Persian stating when they were built and by whom. Some of these inscriptions, installed in mosques, proclaim that the mosques occupy the sites of Hindu temples which were destroyed. Others say that temple materials were used in the construction of the mosques. Similar inscriptions on stone slabs lying loose or not in situ have been discovered in many places; it is difficult to determine as to on what mosques or other Muslim monuments they were installed. It is a safe bet that many more inscriptions which refer to destruction of Hindu temples and construction of mosques etc., remain undiscovered or undeciphered or unpublished. Epigraphists in secular India do not seem to be keen or scrupulous in searching and publishing evidence which compromises the picture of this country as a ‘haven of communal amity and peace before the advent of the British.’
We give below some instances of inscriptions discovered and copied quite some time ago but not published so far:
An Arabic inscription was discovered in the Jami’ Masjid at Srikakulam in Andhra Pradesh in 1953-54. It says that the idol was broken and the mosque constructed by Sher Muhammad Khan Ghazi in AH 1051 (AD 1641-42). Another inscription in the same place says that this Sher Muhammad Khan was given the title of Firuz Jang by Sultan Abdullah Qutb Shah of Golconda in AH 1055 (AD 1645-46).6 The inscription has not been published so far.
A Persian inscription on the entrance gateway of a mosque at Nuh in the Gurgaon District of Haryana states that the foundation of this mosque was laid by Bahadur Khan Nahar in the reign of Muhammad Shah, son of Firuz Shah (Tughlaq), from the materials of a Hindu temple in village Sainthali where Hindus used to assemble in large numbers every year. The qazi of Nauganwa made a representation to Bahadur Khan Nahar who destroyed the temple and completed the mosque in AH 803 (AD 1400).7 This inscription has yet to be published though it was discovered in 1963-64.
Another Persian inscription discovered in the Jami’ Masjid at Ritpur in the Amraoti District of Maharashtra proclaims that the mosque which was originally built by Aurangzeb on the site of a Hindu temple, having become desolate through passage of time, was reconstructed in AH 1295 (AD 1878) with the help of contributions raised by the local Muslims.8 This inscription discovered in 1964-65 has not been published so far.
An inscription discovered in 1978-79 on the facade of the Jami’ Masjid in Mahalla Sunhat at Balasore in Orissa states die in AH 1079 (AD 1668-69) a mob of Muslim mendicants (faqirs) led by Talib stormed and set fire to the temple of Śri ChaNdi which was being resorted to by the Hindus. Five years later, the local faujdar built the mosque on the same site.9 This inscription, too, remains unpublished.
An inscription in the Jami’ Masjid at Tadpatri in Andhra Pradesh records that the mosque was constructed on the site of a temple by Mahmud for offering prayers to Allah. The inscription dated AH 1107 (AD 1695) was discovered in 1980-81.10 It is not yet published. We do not know anything about Mahmud who performed this pious deed in the reign of Aurangzeb.
Similar inscriptions are known to exist in some mosques which are still in use. But they cannot be copied because they have been covered with plaster. Years ago, Dr. Bloch had seen an inscription in the Patthar-ki-Masjid at Patna, the capital of Bihar, stating that the materials for the mosque were obtained from a Hindu temple at Majhauli (now in the Gorakhpur District of Uttar Pradesh).11 The temple was demolished in AH 1036 (AD 1626) by Prince Parwiz, a son of the Mughal emperor Jahangir. ‘I made the car stop,’ writes Syed Hasan Askari, ‘and took my friends to the upper part of the historic Patthar-ki-Masjid. One of my American friends was an Arabist, but there was nothing for him to read, for the demoralised custodians had the inscription plastered with cement, considering that it contained provocative references.’12 Some friends of this author who visited the Jami’ Masjid at Sambhal in the Moradabad District of Uttar Pradesh had the same experience when they expressed a desire to have a look at the inscriptions. This mosque was built in AD 1526 by an officer of Babur on the site and from the materials of the local Hari Mandir.
It may also be mentioned that similar inscriptions which have been published by the archaeological surveys in countries outside the present-day precincts of India have remained beyond our reach because of the paucity of our means.
The inscriptions that we present below have been deciphered for the most part by learned Muslim epigraphists and placed in their proper historical context. The Archaeological Survey of India has published their fascimilies in its learned journals. They are being presented in a chronological order with reference to the dates they carry and not in the order in which they were discovered or published.
This inscription can be seen over the inner eastern gateway of the Quwwat al-Islam Masjid near the Qutb Minar. It is in situ. Its language is Persian. It states:
‘This fort was conquered and this Jami’ Masjid built in the months of the year 587 by the Amir, the great, the glorious commander of the Army, Qutb-ud-daula wad-din, the Amir-ul-umara Aibeg, the slave of the Sultan, may God strengthen his helpers! The materials (?) of 27 idol temples, on each of which 2,000,000 Deliwal had been spent were used in the (construction of) this mosque. God the Great and Glorious may have mercy on that slave, every one who is in favour of the good (?) builder prays for this faith.’13
The Amir mentioned in the inscription was Qutbu’d-Din Aibak, a slave of Shihabu’d-Din or Muizzu’d-Din Muhammad bin Sam popularly known as Muhammad Ghuri. Aibak died at Lahore in 1210. He had crowned himself at the same place in 1206 and is counted as the first sultan of the Slave or Mamluk Dynasty.
The date AH 587 mentioned in the inscription presents a problem. It corresponds to AD 1191 while it is indisputable according to all sources that Delhi came under Muslim occupation for the first time in 1192, after the second battle of Tarain. Moreover, Delhi like Ajmer, was left at that time in the hands of a Hindu prince who was to rule as a tributary of the Ghurid empire. Soon after, Delhi was besieged by a Hindu army under the leadership of Jhat Rai, a Chauhan general. Qutbu’d-Din Aibak whom Muhammad Ghuri had left in charge of his Indian conquests had to rush back from Meerut which he had captured in the meanwhile. He was able to reoccupy Delhi and drive away the Hindu only in 1193. It is difficult to say whether the destruction of the Hindu temples and construction of the mosque mentioned in the inscription took place during the first occupation in 1192 or the second occupation in 1193. It is surmised that it could not have happened while Delhi was in charge of a Hindu prince, though it is not a very strong argument the Hindu prince must have been a helpless witness of what the conquerors did. The only thing that is certain is that the mosque could not have been built in 1191 when Delhi was still in the hands of an unconquered Hindu king.
The epigraphist has tried to solve the puzzle. ‘This inscription,’ he writes, ‘exhibits the titles which he had assumed in 602 when he received his manumission from the ruler of Ghazni. Before that date, as long as his master was alive, there was nothing to prevent him from inscribing his own name on any building he liked, but he could have done so only if he included the name of his overlord in the record. Now in our inscription Shihabuddin’s name is not mentioned, nor does Qutbuddin appear in it as anything higher than the Amir-ul-Umara. This leads us to the conclusion that the inscription was put up after Qutbuddin’s death by order of some ruler, who wished Qutbuddin’s memory to be preserved as the conqueror of Delhi, but who had no interest in having it stated that Shihabuddin was his sovereign at that time. Had Qutbuddin’s descendants ruled at Delhi, they might have preferred to assign to him the titles he assumed as an independent ruler; but his successors were not of his lineage. How long after Qutbuddin’s death it was put up, it is difficult to say. But a terminus ante quem is furnished by Ibn Battuta who read it when at Delhi during the reign of Muhammad Tughlaq Shah.’14 It is surmised that the inscription was installed in the reign of Shamsu’d-Din Iltutmish (AD 1210-1236) and the date on it was somehow bungled.
There is thus no doubt that the inscription is very old. Ibn Battuta had reached Delhi in AD 1334 and seen the mosque immediately afar his arrival. ‘On the site of this mosque,’ he writes, ‘there was a budkhana, that is an idol-house. After the conquest of Delhi it was turned into a mosque.’15 He also makes a mistake about the date of the conquest which he says was given to him by the Sadr-i-Jahan, chief justice of Hind and Sind. But he confirms that ‘I read that date in an inscription on the arch of the great congregational mosque there.’16
This town is the headquarters of a Taluka in the Mehsana District of Gujarat. The ManSuri Masjid in the town has been ‘entirely reconstructed in the past decade or so, but the inscribed tablet from the old mosque has been retained and fixed above the central miHrab.’17 The Persian inscription reads as follows:
‘The Blessed and Exalted Allah says, ‘And verily, mosques are for Allah only; hence invoke not anyone else with Allah.’ This edifice was (originally) built by the infidels. After the advent (lit. time) of Islam, it was converted into (lit. became) a mosque. Sermon was (delivered here) for sixty-seven years. Due to the sedition of the infidels, it was again destroyed. When during the reign of the Sultan of the time, AHmad, the affairs of each Iqta attained magnificence, Babadur, the Sarkhail, once again carried out repairs. Through the generosity of Divine munificence, it became like new.’18
The inscription does not mention the date when the Hindu temple was destroyed and a mosque built on its site, nor the date when the mosque was repaired after the restoration of Muslim authority. ‘“The reconstruction,’ comments the epigraphist, ‘must have obviously taken place at a time when Sultan Ahmad Shah had established his unquestioned sway over that region, that is to say, in about 1428. Again, it is not easy to determine when the Hindu building was first used as a mosque. It is reasonable to think that after the conquest of Gujarat, and the consolidation of Muslim rule in the province, by ‘Alau’d-Din Khalji, the building might have been used as a place of Muslim worship and it was used as such till the time when, about three quarters of a century later, sometime towards the end of the fourteenth century synchronising with the defiance of central authority by the Gujarat governor Malik Mufarrih, the mosque was desecrated or destroyed.’19
The reference to sermon being delivered in the mosque indicates that it was a Jami’ Masjid. The Hindu temple, too, it means must have been a major temple. Muslim iconoclasts generally used the sites of the most important Hindu temples for raising Jami’ Masjids.
At present this place is the headquarters of a District of the same name in Rajasthan. But in medieval times it had become famous on account of its very strong fort with which was associated the glory of Mewar. It was occupied by Muslims for the first time in AD 1303 after a seize of eight months by ‘Alau’d-Din Khalji (AD 1296-1310), the second sultan of the Khalji dynasty of Delhi.
At a distance of about one mile outside the Delhi Gate of the fort there is a tomb known as that of Ghaibi Pir. Opposite to the tomb is a Muslim graveyard in which there is a small one-wall mosque. The prayer niche of the mosque carries a Persian inscription of which only a small portion has survived. The learned epigraphist has read it as follows after restoring some words by conjecture: ‘He constructed the congregational mosque. There was temple lying in ruins.’20
The inscription is not in situ as it belongs to a Jami’ Masjid which this small mosque is not. The epigraphist thinks that the tablet bearing the inscription seems to be a fragment of another tablet fixed in the west wall of the tomb of Ghaibi Pir. The second tablet bears another inscription which mentions the name Bu’l Muzaffar, the second Sikandar, that is, ‘Alau’d-Din Khalji, and the year AD 1310.21 ‘If this guess is correct,’ the epigraphist concludes, ‘it would mean that ‘Alau’d-Din had ordered the construction in Chitor, of a congregational mosque, which was completed on the day of Sacrifice, the 10th of Dhi’l-Hijja of the year AH 709 (11 May AD 1310). Needless to say, no trace remains of any old mosque in Chitor today.’22
There is another conclusion drawn by the epigraphist after his conjectural restoration of the first inscription. ‘It is also interesting to note,’ he writes, ‘provided of course I am not wrong in my conjectural reading of the second hemistich, that the said Jami’ mosque was constructed at the site of a temple which was then lying in ruins. This is particularly important as showing that, not always as is generally supposed, the Hindu buildings were pulled down to provide materials for mosques and other similar monuments.’23 We find it difficult to agree. The conjectural reading, ‘lying in ruins,’ is not the only possible reading. It can as well be read as ‘made into ruins’, which is the standard expression used in many other inscriptions.
It is the headquarters of a Taluka of the same name in the Raichur District of Karnataka. A mosque in this place has a Persian inscription fixed above its door. It reads as follows:
‘He (Allah) is Omniscient. Praise be to Allah that by the decree of the Nourisher, a mosque has been converted out of a temple as a sign of religion, in the reign of the world-conquering emperor, the king who is asylum of the Faith and possessor of the crown, whose kingdom is young (i.e. flourishing), viz. Firuz Shah Bahmani, who is the cause of exuberant spring in the garden of religion, Abu’l-Fath the king who conquered (lit. on horseback). After the victory of the emperor, the chief of chiefs, Safdar (lit. the valiant commander) of the age, received (the charge of) the fort. The builder of this noble place of prayer is Muhammad ZaHir Aqchi, the pivot of the Faith. He constructed in the year eight hundred and nine from the Migration of the Chosen (prophet Muhammad) this Ka’ba like memento.’24
The year AH 809 corresponds to AD 1406-07. Firuz Shah Bahmani (AD 1397-1422) was the eighth ruler of this independent Muslim dynasty established by ‘Alau’d-Din Bahmani in AD 1347. The capital of Firuz Shah was at Gulbarga. It was shifted to Bidar by his son, Ahmad Shah Bahmani, some time about AD 1425.
This is a famous town in the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh, and head-quarters of a distinct of the same name. It was the capital of the renowned Bhoja Parmara who ruled between AD 1000 and 1055. It has a mausoleum known to be that of Shykh ‘Abdullah Shah Changal, now in ruins. The doorway of the entrance to the mausoleum has a long inscription in Persian which, after singing fulsome praises of the Shykh, says:
‘This centre became Muhammadan first by him (and) all the banners of religion were spread. This lion-man came from the centre of religion to this old temple with a large force. He broke the images of the false deities, and turned the idol temple into a mosque. When Rai Bhoj saw this, through wisdom he embraced Islam with the family of his brave warriors. This quarter became illuminated by the light of the Muhammadan law, and the customs of the infidels became obsolete and abolished. Now this tomb since those days has become the famous pilgrimage-place of the world. Graves from their oldness became levelled (to the ground), (and) there remained no mound on any grave. There was [no place] also for the retirement, wherein the distressed dervish could take rest. The Khalji king MaHmud Shah who is such that by his justice the world has become adorned like paradise; he built afresh this old structure, and this house with its enclosure again became new. From the hijra it was 859 (AD 1455) that its (the building’s) date was written anew.’25
The inscription was put up by Mahmud Shah Khalji of Malwa, who overthrew the independent Ghuri dynasty of that province in AD 1436 and ruled as the founder of the independent Khalji dynasty of Malwa till 1469. Nothing is known about ‘Abdullah Shah Changal except that he hailed from Medina and was one of the earliest crusaders of Islam in Malwa. G. Yazdani who has published and translated this inscription speculates that ‘Abdullah belonged to the army of Mahmud of Ghazni who fought with Raja Bhoja’ and though he ‘might have converted only a few Hindus to Islam, after a period of four hundred years, can easily have been believed to have converted Raja Bhoja with all his family and others to Islam.’26 It is, however, more probable, as some other scholars have surmised, that the Hindu king was Bhoja II who ascended the throne at Dhar in AD 1283 and during whose reign Jalalu’d-Din Khalji (AD 1290-1296) of Delhi is known to have invaded Malwa. In that case Abdullah Shah Changal seems to have been a Muslim missionary who accompanied the army of Islam from Delhi, destroyed a Hindu temple, built a mosque in its place, and forced the Hindu king to profess the faith of the victor.
This is now a small village in the Palanpur Taluka of the Banaskantha District of Gujarat. But in the reign of Mahmud Shah I, also known as Mahmud BegDha (AD 1458-1511), of Gujarat, it was the seat of a Thana and had a Fort. That is why the place has a Jami’ Masjid. A Persian inscription, fixed on the central mihrab of the mosque, reads as follows:
‘I seek refuge in Allah from (the mischief of) the accursed Satan (and begin) in the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Praise be to Allah! Allah the Blessed and Exalted says, ‘And verily the mosques are for Allah only; hence, invoke not anyone else with Allah.’27 (The prophet), on him be peace, says ‘He who builds a mosque in the world, the Exalted Allah builds for him a palace in Paradise.’ In the auspicious time of the government and peaceful time of Mahmud Shah, son of Muhammad Shah, the sultan, the Jami’, mosque was constructed on the hill of the fort of Malun (or Malwan) by Khan-i-A’zam Ulugh Khan, may Allah prolong his life for justice, generosity and benevolence, at the request of the thanadar Kabir, (son of Diya), the building was constructed by a servant of Ulugh Khan (who is) magnanimous, just, generous, brave (and who) suppressed the wretched infidels. He eradicated the idol-houses and mine of infidelity, along with the idols in the enemy’s country with the blow of the sword, and made ready this abode with different kinds of stone, marble and marim (?). He made its walls and doors out of the stone of the idols; the back of every stone became the place for prostration of the believers the date was Thursday, fifth of the month of Rajab of the year eight hundred and sixty at the time (5th April, AD 1462).’28
At the end of the inscription, we find a verse from the Qur’an (73.20). It says, ‘And whatever of good you send on beforehand for yourselves, you will find it with Allah - that is the best and greatest in reward. And ask forgiveness of Allah. Surely, Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.’
Khan-i-A’zam Ulugh Khan was the title conferred upon ‘Alau’d-Din Suhrab, the Governor of Sultanpur, by Qutbu’d-Din Ahmad Shah or Ahmad Shah II (AD 1451-1458) of Gujarat. He ‘is last heard of as being sent to fetch Prince Fath Khan to be crowned as Mahmud Shah I in AH 862 or 863,’29 that is, AD 1457 or 1458.
It is the headquarters of a Taluka of the same name in the Bharuch District of Gujarat. Above the central mihrab of its Jami’ Masjid there is a Persian inscription providing particulars of its construction. It reads as follows:
‘Allah and His grace. When divine favour was bestowed on Khalil Shah, he constructed the Jami’ Masjid for the decoration of Islam; he ruined the idol-house and temple of the polytheists, (and) completed the Masjid and pulpit in its place. Without doubt, his building was accepted by Allah. What a pleasing edifice became the calculation of its year.’30
The italicised portion of the last line is a chronogram which yields the year AH 911 corresponding to AD 1505-06. Khalil Shah was the third son of Sultan Mahmud BegDha of Gujarat. At the time he constructed the Jami’ Masjid at Amod, he was the Governor of Baroda. He succeeded BegDha in AD 1511 as Muzaffar Shah II and ruled till 1526.
It is a town in the Shivpuri District of Madhya Pradesh. Inside its fort there is a Muslim place of pilgrimage known as the shrine of Shah Madar. An inscription from this shrine was removed to the Archaeological Museum at Gwalior. Written partly in Arabic and partly in Persian, it reads:
‘Dilawar Khan, the chief among the king’s viceroys, caused this mosque to be built which is like a place of shelter for the favourites. Infidelity has been subdued, and Islam has triumphed because of him. The idols have bowed (to him) and the temples have been laid waste on account of him. The temples have been razed to the ground along with their foundations, and mosques and worship houses are flowing with riches.’31
The mosque to which the inscription refers was built in AH 960 (AD 1552) when Islam Shah, the second king of the Sur dynasty founded by Sher Shah in 1538, was the reigning sultan. He was the son of Sher Shah and ruled from AD 1545 to 1554. The inscription was composed by Sayyid Ahmad and written by Nazir Shattari. Both of them belonged to the Shattari sect of Sufism. An outstanding Sufi of this sect, Shykh Muhammad Ghaus, had settled down at Gwalior before the invasion of Babur and helped the latter to seize the fort of Gwalior in AD 1527. His services have been recognized by Babur in his memoirs.32 The Shykh’s shrine inside the fort is reported to have replaced a Hindu temple. He had received great favours from Babur (AD 1526-1530) and Humayun (AD 1530-1538 and 1555-1556). Akbar (AD 1556-1605) ‘revered the Shykh (Muhammad Ghaus) and afterwards became his disciple.’33 Shah Madar belonged to the same Sufi sect.
It is the headquarters of a District of the same name in Uttar Pradesh. Its Hammam-Darwaza Masjid has three inscriptions which are complimentary to each other. The first inscription which is over the central mihrab of the mosque says that it was built in the reign of ‘Abu’l-Muzaffar Jalalu’d-Din Muhammad Akbar Badshah Ghazi (AD 1556-1605).’ The second inscription is built into the wall above the right mihrab. It reads as follows:
‘Thanks that by the guidance of the Everlasting and Living (Allah), this house of infidelity became the niche of prayer (i.e. mosque). As a reward for that, the generous Lord, constructed an abode for its builder in paradise: The Pen of Reason wrote (the words): the mosque of Nawwab Muhsin Khan for the date of its construction.’34
The italicised words in the last line form a chronogram and yield the year AH 975 (AD 1567-68), which is the same as in the third inscription fixed above the right mihrab of the mosque. The builder of the mosque was Nawwab Muhsin Khan. Muhammad Fasihu’d-Din writes in The Sharqi Monuments of Jaunpur (Allahabad, 1922) that the materials of the mosque were ‘taken from those of the temple of Lachman Das, Diwan of Khan-i-Zaman Ali Quli Khan. Akbar made over an the property of the Diwan to Nawab Mohsin Khan.’35
‘It is surprising,’ writes the learned epigraphists, W.H. Siddiqi and Z.A. Desai, ‘that practically nothing is known about Nawwab Muhsin Khan, the builder of this mosque and several other edifices, from contemporary or later records. The tide Nawwab prefixed to his name clearly suggests that he was a man of high status in the reign, probably holding jagir or a high post in the sarkar of Jaunpur, which was included in Akbar’s time in the suba of Allahabad.’36 Abu’l Fazl mentions a Muhsin Khan in Akbar Nama in the annals of the year 1571. He was a brother of the ‘celebrated Shihabu’d-Din Ahmad Khan’ who belonged to ‘a Sayyid family of Nishapur in Iran.’ This Muhsin Khan is probably the same as the Muhsin Khan who, according to Abu’l Fazl again, ‘in AH 982 participated in the Bengal expedition led by Khan-i-Khanan Munim Khan.’37
It is now a village in the Khed Taluka of Poona District in Maharashtra. The old Jami’ Masjid of this place is known for two Persian inscription on two of its pillars. Joined together, the inscriptions read as follows:
‘Oh Allah! Oh Muhammad! O ‘Ali! Mir Muhammad Zaman made up his mind, he opened the door of prosperity on himself with his own hand. He demolished thirty-three idol-temples (and) by divine grace, laid the foundation of a building in this abode of perdition. That the mosques are Allah’s, therefore call not upon any one with Allah (Qur’an LXXII, 18). He opened the arms of magnanimity with goodness and scattered gold, (and) laid the foundation of a mosque like the palace of paradise. I went in contemplation and sought its date from Wisdom. Wisdom was astonished and said, he built this blessed building.’38
The chronogram contained in the italicised words yields the year AH 994 (AD 1586). The Poona region at that time was in the Nizam Shahi kingdom of Ahmadnagar. The ruler was Murtaza Nizam Shah I (1565-1588) during whose reign the kingdom reached its greatest territorial extent. The epigraphists do not tell us anything about Mir Muhammad Zaman, the builder of the mosque. But one thing is clear from the mention of Imam ‘Ali in the inscription, namely, that Mir Muhammad Zaman was a Shi’ah.
This is a town in the Sriperumbudur Taluka of Chingleput District in Tamil Nadu. It has a mosque which has two inscriptions, one in Persian and the other in Telugu. The Persian inscription states that the mosque was built in AH 1063 (AD 1653) in the reign of Sultan ‘Abdullah Qutb Shah (AD 1626-1672) of the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda when Mir Jumla was the governor of the Carnatic province. The builder was Rustam ibn Zul-Fiqar of Istarabad in Iran. ‘In the margin of the tablet,’ writes the epigraphist, G. Yazdani, ‘two Persian couplets are carved, the letters of which have been abraded by the effect of weather. The following words, however, can be deciphered: ‘Destroyed the house of idols and built a mosque, demolished infidels built’.’39
The Telugu version, engraved below the Persian inscription, mentions Rustam, the builder, as ‘Havaludaru of the fort at Punamalli’ and Mir Jumla as ‘Hajarati Navabu-Sahebulugaru, the agent of Hajarati Ãlampanna Sultanu Abdulla Kutupu Śabarajugaru, the lord of Golconda throne.’ The mosque, it says, is ‘to last as long as the Moon and Sun,’ and ‘those that cause obstruction (to it) will incur the sin of killing cow at Kaśi [Varanasi].’ The epigraphist adds, ‘The superstructure of the mosque is built of brick and mortar, the base being of stone, which may have originally formed part of a Hindu temple.’40
Mir Jumla whose name was Muhammad Sayyid was ‘an adventurer from Ardistan in Persia.’ He rose in the service of the Sultan of Golconda as whose general he invaded the Carnatic and became Governor of the conquered territories. ‘By plundering Hindu temples,’ writes J.N. Chaudhuri, ‘and searching out hidden treasures, Mir Jumla accumulated a vast fortune, and according to Thevnot, he had twenty maunds of diamonds in his possession. His jagir in Carnatic was like a kingdom. He was almost an independent ruler and absented himself from the court of Golconda. Alarmed at the growing power of the Wazir, the Sultan attempted to bring him under his control but Mir Jumla entered into intrigues with Bijapur and Persia.’41 Later on, he deserted his first employer and entered the service of the Mughals under Aurangzeb. He destroyed many Hindu temples while operating as a Mughal general in Kuch Bihar.
It is the headquarters of a Taluka of the same name in the Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh. It is famous for its fort which was held by the Vijayanagara kings before it fell to the Qutb Shahi rulers of Golconda. The big mosque on the Udayagiri Hill has a Persian inscription which reads as follows:
‘Ghazi ‘Ali, lord of the age, victor in war with the help and support of the victorious king, pivot (Kutb) of the world, king (Shah) of the throne of the Dakhan, from one end to the other, he (Ghazi ‘Ali) burnt away the sweepings of idolatry with the fire of his sword (he) burnt in one moment the idol of the idol-worshippers; he killed all, that breaker-through (annihilator) of the army; when he captured the fort of Udayagiri, the world became full of Jessamine; (he) began to construct the mosque and the date was, ‘Founder of the mosque - (Ghazi) ‘Ali the iconoclast’.’42
The chronogram yields the year AD 1642-43. Ghazi ‘Ali was presumably a general of Abdullah Qutb Shah (AD 1626-1672) of Golconda. Nothing more is known about him.
The small mosque on the same Hill carries another Persian inscription which reads as follows:
‘During the days of Abdulla Kutb Shah, the pride of kings, Husain Khan secured the blessings of God in that he constructed a new mosque and embellished it. May God accept it for the purpose of prayers. A thousand and sixty and ten and one elapsed from Hijra (AD 1660-61). He destroyed a temple and constructed the House of God.’43
Husain also was most probably another general of the same Sultan of Golconda. Histories of the reign or period do not supply information about his status or role.
It is the headquarters of a Taluka of the same name in the Nizamabad District of Andhra Pradesh. ‘The place,’ writes G. Yazdani, ‘is strewn with sculptures of Jaina and Brahmanical professions of faith. Contemporary history does not mention Bodhan; but the array of antiquities and the discovery of both Hindu and Muslim inscriptions in recent times establish the fact that the town possessed considerable religious and strategic importance in early days.’44
The town has a mosque known as Deval Masjid. It carries two inscriptions which state that it was built in the reign of Muhammad Tughlaq (AD 1325-1351). ‘The Deval Masjid,’ comments G. Yazdani, ‘as its name signifies, was originally a Hindu temple, and converted into a mosque by Muhammad Tughlaq at the time of his conquest of the Deccan. The plan of the building is star-shaped; it has undergone little alteration at the hands of Moslems excepting the removal of the shrine-chamber and the setting up of a pulpit. The original arrangement of the pillars remains undisturbed and the figures of tirthankaras may be noticed on some of them to this day.’45 The date of the conversion of this temple into a mosque is not mentioned in the inscriptions. The building of the temple is assigned by experts to 9-10th century AD.
The eastern part of the same town has a small mosque known as the ‘Ãlamgiri Masjid. One of the two inscriptions on this mosque reads as under:
‘In obedience to the commandment of the Almighty God, the Lord of both the worlds; and in love of the exalted Prophet: During the reign of Shahjahan, the king of the seven climes, the viceregent of God (lit. Truth), the master of the necks of people the benevolent and generous Prince Aurangzeb, whose existence is a blessing of the Merciful God on people: He built a house for worship with (all) the qualities of heaven: after the site has been previously occupied by the temple of infidels.’ 46
The chronogram, ‘Most blessed House’, given at the end of the inscription yields the year AH 1065 (AD 1655) ‘which tallies with the period of Aurangzeb’s governorship of the Deccan, shortly before his marching upon Delhi against his imperial father.’47
The Jami’ Masjid in the heart of this Hindu city has a Persian inscription which reads as follows:
‘In the reign of Shah ‘Ãlamgir Muhiu’ddin Walmillah, the king of the world, Aurangzeb, who is adorned with justice, the lustre of Islam shone forth to the glory of God; for ‘Abd-un-Nabi Khan built this beautiful mosque. This second ‘Holy Temple’ caused the idols to bow down in worship. You will see the true meaning of the text, ‘Truth came and error vanished.’48 Whilst I search for a tarikh, a voice came from blissful Truth ordering me to say ‘Abd-un-Nabi Khan is the builder of this beautiful mosque.’ May this Jama Masjid of majestic structure shine forth for ever like the hearts of the pious! Its roof is high like aspirations of love; its court-yard is wide like the arena of thought.’49
The chronogram which contains the name of the builder, ‘Abdu’n-Nabi Khan, yields the year AH 1470 corresponding to AD 1660-1661. ‘Abdu’n-Nabi Khan had risen high in the service of Shah Jahan. He fought on the side of Dara Shukoh in the decisive Battle of Samugadh in 1658. After the defeat and flight of Dara Shukoh, he joined service under Aurangzeb who appointed him faujdar in various places. ‘Abdun Nabi Khan,’ says Ma’sir-‘Ãlamgiri, ‘after removal from his post in Fathpur Jhunjhnu, was created a 2-hazari and appointed faujdar of Mathura.’50 Jadunath Sarkar adds, ‘Aurangzeb chose him as faujdar of Mathura probably because he, being ‘a religious man’ (as the Court history calls him), was expected to enter heartily into the Emperor’s policy of ‘rooting out idolatry.’ Soon after joining this post Abdun Nabi built a Jama’ Masjid in the heart of the city of Mathura (1661-1662) on the ruins of a Hindu temple. Later, in 1669, he forcibly removed the carved stone railing presented by Dara Shukoh to Keshav Rai’s temple. When in 1669, the Jat peasantry rose under the leadership of Gokla, the zamindar of Tilpat, Abdun Nabi marched out to attack them in the village of Bashara, but was shot dead during the encounter (about 10th May).’51
There is a small mosque on the right hand side of the GaNeśa Gate in the fort at Gwalior, headquarters of a District in Madhya Pradesh. It has a Persian inscription which reads as follows:
In the reign of the great Prince Ãlamgir,
Like the full shining moon,
The enlightener of the world,
Praise be to God that this happy place,
Was by Motamid Khan completed as an alms.
It was the idol temple of the vile Gwali,
He made it a mosque, like a mansion of paradise.
The Khan of enlightened heart,
Nay light itself from head to foot,
Displayed the divine light, like that of mid-day,
He closed the idol temple:
Exclamations rose from earth to heaven,
When the light put far away the abode of darkness,
Hatif said ‘light be blessed.’52
‘Gwali’ mentioned in the inscription refers to the famous Siddha Gawalipa after whom Gwalior is supposed to have been named. Whatever be the truth of the legend, a temple dedicated to Gawalipa did exist at the site now occupied by the mosque. A small temple dedicated to the Siddha exists even now in the vicinity of the mosque. It seems to have been built after the fort was freed from Muslim occupation.
Mu’tmad Khan who destroyed the original temple and built the mosque on its site was the Governor of Gwalior under Aurangzeb. The chronogram in the inscription gives AH 1075 (AD 1664) as the date when the mosque was completed.
It is the headquarters of a Taluka of the same name in the Akola District of Maharashtra. The central mihrab of its Jami’ Masjid carries a Persian inscription which reads as follows:
‘In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. There is no god except Allah. Muhammad is His Prophet, verily. In the just reign of ‘Ãlamgir, the king who is the asylum of Faith (and) whose universal generosity makes the sea and mine shame-stricken, one of his devoted servants, Muhammad Ashraf of god faith, saw a place where there was a temple. Like Khalil (Prophet Abraham), he broke the temple at the command of God, and arranged for the construction of a very steadfast mosque. Year (AH) one thousand and seventy-eight’ (AH 1078 = AD 1667).53
Nothing is known from history about Muhammad Ashraf who constructed this Jami’ Masjid, though it ran be surmised that he was some official of the Mughal empire under Aurangzeb (AD 1658-1707).
It is the headquarters of a District of the same name in the State of Karnataka. It was the capital of the Bahmani Empire from AD 1422 to 1569 when it became the seat of the Barid Shahi kingdom, one of the five Muslim states which arose on the eclipse of the Bahmani dynasty. There is a small mosque on the slope of a mountain, some two miles to the south-east of Bidar. It has an inscription in Persian which says:
‘God there is none but He and we worship not anyone except Him. (He) built a mosque in place of the temple, and wrote over its door the (Qur’anic) verse-‘Verily, We conquered.’54 When the exalted mind of the Khedive, the refuge of Religion, supported by Divine Grace, Abu’z-Zafar MuHi-ud-din Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur ‘Ãlamgir, the victorious, was inclined to, and occupied in, destroying the base of infidelity and darkness and to strengthen the foundation of Islamic religion, the humblest servant Mukhtar Khan al-Husaini as-Sabzwari, the governor of the province of Zafarabad, demolished the temple and built a mosque and laid out a garden which by the Grace of the Omniscient God were completed on the 25th of Rabi’-ul-Awwal in the 14th year of the auspicious reign (AH 1082) corresponding with the date contained in this hemistich-By the Grace of God this temple became a mosque.’55
The corresponding year of the Christian era was 1670. Aurangzeb was the Mughal emperor from AD 1658-1707. Mukhtar Khan was his local officer. It may be noticed that Bidar is described as Zafarabad in this inscription. This is only one instance of many attempts to Islamicise the names of Indian cities, towns and even villages. Many of these Islamic place-names have become current so that the original names have to be excavated from ancient records. Others did not stick and are found only in Muslim histories.
This is now a small town in the Bellary Taluka of the Bellary District of Karnataka. The name means ‘pile of wealth’ which is justified by its location in a rich wet land as compared to the dry land around it. Its Lad Khan’s Masjid has a Persian inscription regarding the construction of the mosque. ‘The present building of the mosque,’ writes G. Yazdani, ‘is of modest dimensions and does not seem to be very old, but it is not unlikely that it stands upon the site of an older mosque.’56 The inscription reads as follows:
‘In Eternity when the Founder of the Fort of ‘blue firmament’ opened the gates of grace and benevolence and mercy into the face of mankind, since then a ball of ‘religion’ and ‘state’, justice and benevolence, was thrown in the pologround and arena of the world. Each of the rulers, monarchs and sovereigns came (into this world) in turn, and manifested majesty according to his ‘star’; (each) gallopped the horse of ambition, but could not bear away the ball, hence (each) threw down the ball of his head on the chaughan of ‘prostration’. Now when the turn of Mas’ud Khan came, he bore away the ball with the chaughan of courage. Know him of pure faith and belief, and of mature fortune and glory; his justice has been praised by Naushirwan and his generosity (applauded) by Hatim. The court of his (kingly) grace is (resplendent) like the Moon; but in the battle-field his awe destroys heads, his wrath and grace in respect of infidelity and faith add darkness and light (to each). Destroyed temples and idols and built mosques and Mihrabs, levelled the mountains in several places and raised walls touching the sky.’57
The inscription goes on to credit Mas’ud Khan with the construction of a gate at Adoni and another at Sirkopa (Siruguppa) in the year AH 1086, corresponding to AD 1674. ‘Mas’ud Khan’s name,’ comments G. Yazdani, ‘is given by Khafi Khan in connection with the conquest of the fortress of Ãdoni by the Mughal army under Firoz Jang in AH 1098-99 (AD 1687-88). Mas’ud Khan defended the fort gallantly on behalf of the Bijapur king, but being unsuccessful in repulsing the Imperial troops, he ultimately made over to them the key of the Fortress and asked for the safety of his life.’58 His bragging about his own prowess was of no avail when he was faced with superior military might.
It is the headquarters of a District of the same name in the State of Andhra Pradesh. ‘Kadapa means a ‘gate’ in Telegu and the name is said to be derived from the fact that Cuddapah town is the gate to the holy places at Tirupati.’59 The District was a part of the Chola Empire of Tanjore from the eleventh to the thirteenth century. In the fourteenth century it became a part of the Vijayanagara Empire. The Qutb Shahi Sultans of Golconda seized it after the defeat of Vijayanagara in 1565 and renamed it Neknamabad. It passed under Mughal rule in 1688.
A mosque in Cuddapah town carries an inscription which reads as follows:
‘In the name of God, the most Merciful and Compassionate. Praise be to God, the Lord of all worlds, and blessing and peace be upon Muhammad, the apostle of God, and upon all his descendants and companions. O God, help Islam and the Muslims by preserving the kingdom of Abu’z-.Zafar Muhiu’d-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur ‘Ãlamgir, the victorious king. Blessed be the ruler of the world, the refuge of the universe; whose name effaces the existence of sin. Since the time of Timur who conquered the kingdom of Romans, there has been no ruler just like the present king (Aurangzeb). The bow which he has stretched by his powerful arms, is such that the echo of its twing has reached the (distant) seas. By the sword, which the powerful king has wielded, panic has sprung (even) in the ocean. Although the king of the time is not a prophet, yet there is no doubt in his being a friend of God. He built the mosque and broke the idols (at a time) when 1103 years had passed from the flight (of the Prophet).’60
The year AH 1103 corresponds to AD 1692. The first two lines of the inscription are in Arabic and eight hemistiches that follow are in Persian. Aurangzeb needs no introduction.
It is a large town and the headquarters of a District of the same name in the State of Gujarat. A prosperous port on the West Coast of India since ancient times, it passed under Muslim rule at the end of the 13th century. As a gateway to Mecca, it became Bandar Mubarak, the blessed port.
The walls of a stepped well known as Gopi Talao have two Persian inscriptions. The first one in which several lines are lost reads as follows: ‘The dust of whose feet is the crown of all. Farrukh Siyar the king, by the fame of whose justice, the creation and the world are in the cradle of repose. The sky of beneficence, Haidar Quli Khan during whose reign tyranny has become extinct. By the grace of God he completed it. He laid waste several idol temples, in order to make this strong building firm.’61
The second inscription is intact and reads as follows: ‘[During] the period of the second ‘Ãlamgir, king of the faith, Farrukh Siyar, whose sword became the guardian of the realm of Islam. The hand of his justice struck a blow on the head of Naushirwan (i.e., surpassed him in justice), the country and the nation everywhere secured tranquility by his justice. Mir ‘Ãlam, sincere friend of Haidar Quli Khan, a reservoir of water constructed in Surat, which became life-giving to the high and the low. Salsabil (a fountain of Paradise) of the Ka’ba of heart, this reservoir of the water of life. The inspirer communicated this chronogram and showed eloquence. As its bricks were taken from an idol temple, one rose and said, Mir ‘Ãlam became the founder of this reservoir by revelation 1130.’62
The chronogram also yields AH 1130 which corresponds to AD 1718. Haidar Quli Khan mentioned in the two inscriptions was the Mughal officer in charge of Surat in the reign of the Mughal emperor Farrukh Siyyar (AD 1713-1719) who got Banda Bairagi tortured and killed and who himself died a dog’s death at the hands of the Sayyid Brothers. We have a locality in old Delhi which is known as Haveli Haidar Quli.
It is the headquarters of a Taluka of the same name in the Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh. The central mihrab of its Gachinala Masjid carries a Persian inscription which reads as follows:
‘He is Allah, may He be glorified, the Most Exalted. During the august rule of the emperor, king of the world, Muhammad Shah, there was a well-established idol-house in Kuhmum which was strengthened and fortified by a small fortress. The Khan of lofty dignity (and) of high position, the source of generosity and mine of beneficence, the Khan who is the master of (high) position, (namely), Muhammad Salih, who prospers in the rectitude of the affairs of Faith, son of Haji Muhammad Kazim was the ruler of Kuhmum. He is one of the select grandees of the city of Tabriz which place is celebrated for producing great persons. (He) razed to the ground the edifice of the idol-house, and also broke the idols in a manly fashion. (He) constructed on the site a suitable mosque, towering above the buildings of all. The Angel of the Unseen communicated the date of its construction in the words: A mosque pleasant in appearance, well founded, and elegant. The year of the migration of the Prophet, may peace (of God) be upon him, was forty-two, one hundred and one thousand. Year AH 1142.’63
The chronogram also yields AH 1142 which corresponds to AD 1729-30. Muhammad Salih was the Governor and Nazim of Cumbum in that year under the Mughal emperor, Muhammad Shah (AD 1719-48).
Three conclusions can be safely drawn from a study of these 21 inscriptions. Firstly, the destruction of Hindu temples continued throughout the Muslim rule, from the date of its first establishment at Delhi in AD 1192 to its downfall with the death of the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah in 1748. Secondly, the destruction took place all over India and was undertaken by rulers belonging to all Muslim dynasties, imperial as well as provincial. Thirdly, the destruction had no economic or political motive as has been proposed by Marxist scholars and Muslim apologists; it was inspired by religious zeal and regarded as a pious performance by Muslim kings and commanders, all of whom took considerable pride in it and sought blessing from Allah and the Prophet. The iconoclasts, it may be added, have been idolised all along as paragons of faith, virtue, justice and generosity. These conclusions become clearer still when we come to evidence from Islamic literary sources.
Heinrich Zimmer, Art of Indian Asia, Princeton, Paperback Edition, 1983, Vol. I, p. 201. ↩
Ibid., p. 246. ↩
Ibid., p. 270. ↩
Ibid., p. 5n. ↩
The word ‘Hindu’ has been used throughout this book to denote all schools of Sanatana Dharma - Brahmanical, Buddhist, and Jain. See Appendix 3 for how the words ‘Hindu’ and ‘Hinduism’ have been made to mean what they never meant. ↩
Annual Report of Indian Epigraphy 1953-54, C-70 and C-71. ↩
Ibid., 1963-M, D-286. ↩
Ibid., 1964-65, D-123. The date is significant. As late as AD 1878, Muslims in Maharashtra took pride in proclaiming that a Jami’ Masjid occupied the site of a demolished Hindu temple. ↩
Ibid., 1978-79, C-56. ↩
Ibid., 1980-81, C-14. ↩
Archaeological Survey of India, Annual Report 1906-07, p. 196. ↩
Qeyamuddin Ahmad (c-d.), Patna through the Ages, New Delhi, 1988, p. 64. ↩
Epigraphia Indo Moslemica, 1911-12, p. 13. ↩
Ibid., p. 14. ↩
The Rehala of Ibn Battuta, translated into English by Mahdi Hussain, Baroda. 1976, p. 27. ↩
Ibid., p. 32 ↩
Epigraphia Indica-Arabic and Persian Supplement, 1974, p. 10. ↩
Ibid., p. 11. ↩
Ibid., p. 12. ↩
Epigraphia Indica - Arabic and Persian Supplement, 1959-60, p. 73. ↩
Ibid., p. 72. ↩
Ibid., p. 73. ↩
Ibid., p. 72. ↩
Epigraphia Indica - Arabic and Persian Supplement, 1962, p. 58. ↩
Epigraphia Indo - Moslemica, 1909-10, pp. 4-5. ↩
Ibid., p. 1. ↩
Qur’an, 72.18. ↩
Epigraphia Indica - Arabic and Persian Supplement, 1963, pp. 28-29. ↩
Ibid., p. 27. ↩
Epigraphia Indo - Moslemica, 1933-34, p. 36. ↩
Indian Antiquary, June. 1927, pp. 101-04. ↩
Babur-Nama, translated into English by A.S. Beveridge, New Delhi Reprint, 1979, Vol. II, pp. 539-40. ↩
Majumdar, R.C. (ed.), op. cit, Vol. VII, The Mughal Empire, Bombay, 1974, p. 106. ↩
Epigraphia Indica -Arabic and Persian Supplement, 1969, p. 69. ↩
Quoted in Ibid., footnote 2. ↩
Ibid., p. 70. ↩
Ibid., p. 71. ↩
Epigraphia Indo-Mostemica, 1933-34. p. 24. ↩
Epigraphia Indo-Moslemica, 1937-38, p. 53, footnote 2. ↩
Ibid., pp. 53-54. ↩
Majumdar R.C., (ed.), op. cit., Vol. VII, The Mughal Empire. pp. 475-76. ↩
Allen Buterworth and V. Venugopaul Chetty, Copper-plate and Stone Inscriptions of South India, Delhi Reprint, 1989, pp. 385-86. ↩
Ibid., pp. 381-82. ↩
Epigraphia Indo-Moslemica, 1919-1920, p. 16. ↩
Ibid., p. 18. ↩
Ibid., p. 17. ↩
Qur’an, 17.83. This ayat was recited first by Muhammad when he destroyed the idols of pagan Arabs in the Ka’ba at Mecca. ↩
The inscription has been reproduced and translated into English by F.S. Growse in his Mathura: A District Memoir, third edition (1883) reprinted from Ahmadabad in 1978, pp. 150-51. ↩
Maa’sir-i-‘Ãlamgiri, translated into English by Sir Jadu-Nath Sarkar, Calcutta, 1947, pp. 47-48. ↩
Jadunath Sarkar, op. cit., Vol. III, pp. 194-95. ↩
Archaeological Survey of India, Four Reports Made During the Years 1862-63-64-65 by Alexander Cunningham, Varanasi Reprint, 1972. p. 335. ↩
Epigraphia Indica - Arabic and Persian Supplement, 1963, p. 54. ↩
Qur’an, 48.1. ↩
Epigraphia Indo - Moslemica, 1927-28, p. 33. ↩
Epigraphia Indo - Moslemica, 1921-22, p. 8. ↩
Ibid., pp. 11-12. ↩
Ibid., p. 10. ↩
Imperial Gazetteer of India, Provincial Series, Madras, New Delhi Reprint. 1985, Vol. I, p. 370. ↩
Epigraphia Indo - Moslemica, 1937-38, p. 55. ↩
Epigraphia Indo - Moslemica. 1933-34, p. 42. ↩
Ibid., p. 41. ↩
Epigraphia Indica - Arabic and Persian Supplement, 1959, pp. 65-66. ↩